India is rich in agro-climate areas and bio-diversities. Climate change has a direct impact over the flowering plants especially in the commercial production done under the open field conditions. In the booming span, the flower production is damaged directly with the impact of excessive cold, heat, unpredictable or continuous rainfall or storm.
Climate change impact over the flowering plants is becoming apparent. Altering temperature affects the growth of flowers mainly ornamental plants. Drought can be a challenge in the areas with low rainfall and high temperature that results in fading of colour, petal shedding in budding flowers. Open area cultivation is highly prone to pests, diseases, nematodes, and weeds that affect the production. No matter what and how good the cultivation, these factors always leads to drawback. The low yield occurs even due to a slight change in temperature and humidity that results in increasing pathogens and insects.
Infrastructure related challenges
Being the 2nd largest market in terms of flower consumption, India still lacks some basic infrastructure like an air conditioned flower market. The production-related challenges are associated to ground level issues like unavailability of enough infrastructure, quality species of planting material and identical manures or fertilisers. Other big hindrances are less knowledge of high yield varieties, the proper dose of fertilisers, correct use of pesticides and soil testing. The floriculture production is even badly affected by lack of skilled labour for cultivation and plant protection before and after harvesting of flowers. Ageing plantations further adding to the woes of producers in this market.
Marketing and export-related challenges
While calculating the net profit of the production, flower marketing is the main problem. The marketing of floriculture produce faces various challenges like grading, assembling, packaging and transportation. From the marginal farmers to the large-scale exporters, there are many constraints related to the marketing and export of the flowers and other floral products. Major challenges faced by Indian exporters are related to product diversification, innovation, vertical integration, and environmental changes. Logistics is even turning into a critical factor with the rapid involvement of the supermarket in floral trade for the Indian floral exporters. For flower’s export, air freight rates are very exorbitant as compared to many other flower producing countries like Kenya, Ethiopia & Ecuador where government policies are favourable for trade.
Inspite of all these challenges, Indian producers and customers find this as an exciting market which has a lot of potential.